Home SECURITY How was the universe born? CERN physicists find new clue in B-meson decays

How was the universe born? CERN physicists find new clue in B-meson decays

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How was the universe born?  CERN physicists find new clue in B-meson decays

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How was the universe born? CERN physicists find new clue in B-meson decays

New results from experiments at the Large Hadron Collider show the difference between matter and antimatter.

Physicists from the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) published new results from experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which measured the symmetry breaking between matter and antimatter in the decays of particles with heavy quarks. This violation, called CP violation, may be one of the key factors explaining the superiority of matter over antimatter in the universe.

CP symmetry assumes that the laws of physics do not change when the charge of a particle is reversed and reflected in a mirror. However, in 1964 it was discovered that CP symmetry is broken in the decays of neutral kaons, particles consisting of s and d quarks. Later it was shown that CP-symmetry is also violated in the decays of neutral B-mesons – particles consisting of b and d or b and s quarks.

At the LHC, physicists are experimenting with two detectors – LHCb and CMS – to study B-meson decays with high precision. In the new work, they combined data from both detectors and obtained the most accurate measurement of the parameter that characterizes the violation of CP symmetry in the decays of B mesons into a pair of J/ψ and Ks. This parameter is called SψKs and is equal to the sine of the decay phase angle. If the CP symmetry is not violated, then SψKs must be equal to zero.

Physicists have found that SψKs is non-zero at the 5 sigma level, a statistically significant level that means less than one in 3.5 million cases deviate from the null hypothesis. They obtained the value of SψKs equal to 0.731 ± 0.035, which is consistent with the predictions of the standard model – a theory that describes all known elementary particles and their interactions.

This measurement is one of the most accurate in the field of heavy quark physics and demonstrates the high sensitivity of the LHC detectors to CP symmetry breaking. However, the Standard Model cannot fully explain the asymmetry between matter and antimatter, so physicists continue to search for new physical phenomena that could lead to more CP violation than the Standard Model predicts.

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